Turkey's constitutional referendum: the 16 April 2017 referendum in historical perspective

Kalaycıoğlu, Ersin and Kocapınar Yıldırım, Gülnur (2021) Turkey's constitutional referendum: the 16 April 2017 referendum in historical perspective. In: Smith, Julie, (ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of European Referendums. Palgrave Macmillan Cham, Switzerland, pp. 405-426. ISBN 978-3-030-55802-4 (Print) 978-3-030-55803-1 (Online)

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Turkey has had seven referendums since 1961, originally for seeking popular consent for the new constitutions of 1961 and 1982. The last five referendums functioned as tools for promoting the political agenda of the ruling political parties and their leaders, as these parties and leaders seemed to have aimed at changing the rules of the political game while attempting to eliminate the challenges and resistance from the opposition. Although the 1987 and 1988referendums failed to aid the governing parties, the last three referendums resulted in changing the regime of the country from democratic semi-parliamentarism to semi-presidentialism first (in 2007) and eventually to anunchecked authoritarian presidentialism. The outcome of the 16 April 2017Referendum was determined by partisanship in a highly conflictual polarized political milieu, which occurred under the influence of emergency measures, curtailed opposition, scuppered media and produced a regime that resembled nothing less than neo-patrimonial sultanism.
Item Type: Book Section / Chapter
Subjects: J Political Science > JA Political science (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences > Academic programs > Political Science
Depositing User: Ersin Kalaycıoğlu
Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2021 21:30
Last Modified: 08 May 2023 14:43
URI: https://research.sabanciuniv.edu/id/eprint/41898

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