Simultaneous fortification of iron and zinc in parboiled rice kernel

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Prom-u-thai, C. and Huang, L. and Çakmak, İsmail and Rerkasem, B. (2011) Simultaneous fortification of iron and zinc in parboiled rice kernel. ScienceAsia, 37 (4). pp. 296-302. ISSN 1513-1874

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Fortification with Fe or Zn during parboiling process can effectively increase the concentration of each of these nutrients in rice. As Fe and Zn are often both limited in the diet of rice eaters, the present study investigated the feasibility of simultaneous fortification of parboiled rice with Fe (Fe-EDTA) and Zn (ZnSO(4)). The samples were treated with solutions consisting of both elements at different Fe:Zn concentration ratios (as mg/l) in the ranges 50:50, 50:100, 50:150, 50:200, and 100:50, 150:50, 200:50. Parboiling resulted in a nearly 5-folds increase in the concentration of Fe and Zn in rice kernels, depending on the rice cultivars. The added Fe and Zn penetrated across the husk and aleurone layers into the endosperm tissue, with a close relationship between unpolished and polished rice in their Fe (r = 0.86, p < 0.01) and Zn concentration (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). All to nearly all of the fortified Fe (80-100%) and Zn (70-100%) were retained after a washing that simulated the common practice of a pre-cooking wash. The fortified Fe and Zn in the polished kernels were highly bio-accessible, which was 45-100% for Fe and 88-97% for Zn. These results show how Fe and Zn concentration in polished parboiled rice can be increased by simultaneous fortification with both nutrients during the parboiling process.
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: multi fortification; parboiling process; bio-accessibility; retention; penetration
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences > Academic programs > Biological Sciences & Bio Eng.
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Depositing User: İsmail Çakmak
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2012 10:33
Last Modified: 29 Jul 2019 12:48

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