On the passivity of interaction control with series elastic actuation
Tosun, Fatih Emre (2019) On the passivity of interaction control with series elastic actuation. [Thesis]
Regulating the mechanical interaction between robot and environment is a fundamentally important problem in robotics. Many applications such as manipulation and assembly tasks necessitate interaction control. Applications in which the robots are expected to collaborate and share the workspace with humans also require interaction control. Therefore, interaction controllers are quintessential to physical human-robot interaction (pHRI) applications. Passivity paradigm provides powerful design tools to ensure the safety of interaction. It relies on the idea that passive systems do not generate energy that can potentially destabilize the system. Thus, coupled stability is guaranteed if the controller and the environment are passive. Fortunately, passive environments constitute an extensive and useful set, including all combinations of linear or nonlinear masses, springs, and dampers. Moreover, a human operator may also be treated as a passive network element. Passivity paradigm is appealing for pHRI applications as it ensures stability robustness and provides ease-of-control design. However, passivity is a conservative framework which imposes stringent limits on control gains that deteriorate the performance. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to obtain the most relaxed passivity bounds for the control design problem. Series Elastic Actuation (SEA) has become prevalent in pHRI applications as it provides considerable advantages over traditional sti actuators in terms of stability robustness and delity of force control, thanks to deliberately introduced compliance between the actuator and the load. Several impedance control architectures have been proposed for SEA. Among the alternatives, the cascaded controller with an inner-most velocity loop, an intermediate torque loop and an outer-most impedance loop is particularly favoured for its simplicity, robustness, and performance. In this thesis, we derive the necessary and su cient conditions to ensure the passivity of the cascade-controller architecture for rendering two classical linear impedance models of null impedance and pure spring. Based on the newly established passivity conditions, we provide non-conservative design guidelines to haptically display free-space and virtual spring while ensuring coupled stability, thus the safety of interaction. We demonstrate the validity of these conditions through simulation studies as well as physical experiments. We demonstrate the importance of including physical damping in the actuator model during derivation of passivity conditions, when integral controllers are utilized. We note the unintuitive adversary e ect of actuator damping on system passivity. More precisely, we establish that the damping term imposes an extra bound on controller gains to preserve passivity. We further study an extension to the cascaded SEA control architecture and discover that series elastic damping actuation (SEDA) can passively render impedances that are out of the range of SEA. In particular, we demonstrate that SEDA can passively render Voigt model and impedances higher than the physical spring-damper pair in SEDA. The mathematical analyses of SEDA are veri ed through simulations.
Repository Staff Only: item control page