A series elastic brake pedal for improving driving performance under regenerative braking

Çalışkan, Umut (2019) A series elastic brake pedal for improving driving performance under regenerative braking. [Thesis]

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Electric and hybrid vehicles are favored to decrease the carbon footprint on the planet. The electric motor in these vehicles serves a dual purpose. The use of electric motor for deceleration, by converting the kinetic energy of the vehicle into electrical energy to be stored in the battery is called regenerative braking. Regenerative braking is commonly employed by electrical vehicles to signi cantly improve energy e ciency and to help to meet emission standards. When the regenerative and friction brakes are simultaneously activated by the driver interacting with the brake pedal, the conventional haptic brake pedal feel is disturbed due to the regenerative braking. In particular, while there exists a physical coupling between the brake pedal and the conventional friction brakes, no such physical coupling exists for the regenerative braking. As a result, no reaction forces are fed back to the brake pedal, resulting in a unilateral power ow between the driver and the vehicle. Consequently, the relationship between the brake pedal force and the vehicle deceleration is strongly in uenced by the regenerative braking. This results in a unfamiliar response of the brake pedal, negatively impacting the driver's performance and posing a safety concern. The reaction forces due to regenerative braking can be fed back to the brake pedal, through actuated pedals that re-establish the bilateral power ow to recover the natural haptic pedal feel. We propose a force-feedback brake pedal with series elastic actuation to preserve the conventional brake pedal feel during regenerative braking. The novelty of the proposed design is due to the deliberate introduction of a compliant element between the actuator and the brake pedal whose de ections are measured to estimate interaction forces and to perform closed-loop force control. Thanks to its series elasticity, the force-feedback brake pedal can utilize robust controllers to achieve high delity force control, possesses favorable output impedance characteristics over the entire frequency spectrum, and can be implemented in a compact package using low-cost components. We introduce pedal feel compensation algorithms to recover the missing regenerative brake forces on the brake pedal. The proposed algorithms are implemented for both two-pedal cooperative braking and one-pedal driving conditions. For those driving conditions, the missing pedal feedback due to the regenerative brake forces are rendered through the active pedal to recover the conventional pedal force mapping. In two-pedal cooperative braking, the regenerative braking is activated by pressing the brake pedal, while in one-pedal driving the activation takes place as soon as the throttle pedal is released. The applicability and e ectiveness of the proposed series elastic brake pedal and haptic pedal feel compensation algorithms in terms of driving safety and performance have been investigated through human subject experiments. The experiments have been conducted using a haptic pedal feel platform that consists of a SEA brake pedal, a torque-controlled dynamometer, and a throttle pedal. The dynamometer renders the pedal forces due to friction braking, while the SEA brake pedal renders the missing pedal forces due to the regenerative braking. The throttle pedal is utilized for the activation of regenerative braking in one-pedal driving. The simulator implements a vehicle pursuit task similar to the CAMP protocol and provides visual feedback to the participant. The e ectiveness of the preservation of the natural brake pedal feel has been studied under two-pedal cooperative braking and one-pedal driving scenarios. The experimental results indicate that pedal feel compensation can signi cantly decrease the number of hard braking instances, improving safety for both two-pedal cooperative braking and one-pedal driving. Volunteers also strongly prefer compensation, while they equally prefer and can e ectively utilize both two-pedal and one-pedal driving conditions. The bene cial e ects of haptic pedal feel compensation on safety is evaluated to be larger for the two-pedal cooperative braking condition, as lack of compensation results in sti ening/softening pedal feel characteristics in this case
Item Type: Thesis
Uncontrolled Keywords: Regenerative braking. -- Cooperative braking. -- One-pedal driving. -- Haptic pedal feel compensation. -- Series elastic brake pedal. -- Faydalı frenleme. -- Kooperatif frenleme. -- Tek pedal ile sürüş. -- Haptik pedal hissiyati. -- Seri elastik eyleyici tahrikli fren pedalı.
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ163.12 Mechatronics
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences > Academic programs > Mechatronics
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Depositing User: IC-Cataloging
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2020 09:30
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2022 10:32
URI: https://research.sabanciuniv.edu/id/eprint/39702

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