Effects of ambient temperature on the route planning of electric freight vehicles
Rastani, Sina and Yüksel, Tuğçe and Çatay, Bülent (2019) Effects of ambient temperature on the route planning of electric freight vehicles. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment . ISSN 1361-9209 Published Online First http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2019.07.025
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2019.07.025
Electric freight vehicles have strong potential to reduce emissions stemming from logistics operations; however, their limited range still causes critical limitations. Range anxiety is directly related to the total amount of energy consumed during trips. There are several operational factors that affect the energy consumption of electric vehicles and should be considered for accurate route planning. Among them, ambient temperature arises as a key factor because cabin heating or cooling may significantly increase the energy discharged from the battery during the trip and reduce the driving range. Additionally, cold temperatures decrease the battery efficiency and cause performance losses. In this study, we investigate the effect of ambient temperature on the fleet composition, energy consumption, and routing decisions in last-mile delivery operations. First, we first present the mathematical programming formulation of the problem. Next, we perform an extensive computational study based on benchmark data from the literature. For solving the small-size instances we use a commercial solver. For solving the large-size instances we employ an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. Our results show that the route plans made without considering the ambient temperature effect may lead to inefficient operations and disruptions. Specifically, the fleet size and energy consumption can increase by 46% and 81%, respectively, in small-size problems on average due to ambient temperature whereas the average increase can reach 15% and 68%, respectively, in large-size problems. Finally, we present a case study from a logistics company operating in Southern Turkey to provide managerial insights to both researchers and practitioners.
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