Security/privacy analysis of biometric hashing and template protection for fingerprint minutiae
Topçu, Berkay (2016) Security/privacy analysis of biometric hashing and template protection for fingerprint minutiae. [Thesis]
This thesis has two main parts. The first part deals with security and privacy analysis of biometric hashing. The second part introduces a method for fixed-length feature vector extraction and hash generation from fingerprint minutiae. The upsurge of interest in biometric systems has led to development of biometric template protection methods in order to overcome security and privacy problems. Biometric hashing produces a secure binary template by combining a personal secret key and the biometric of a person, which leads to a two factor authentication method. This dissertation analyzes biometric hashing both from a theoretical point of view and in regards to its practical application. For theoretical evaluation of biohashes, a systematic approach which uses estimated entropy based on degree of freedom of a binomial distribution is outlined. In addition, novel practical security and privacy attacks against face image hashing are presented to quantify additional protection provided by biometrics in cases where the secret key is compromised (i.e., the attacker is assumed to know the user's secret key). Two of these attacks are based on sparse signal recovery techniques using one-bit compressed sensing in addition to two other minimum-norm solution based attacks. A rainbow attack based on a large database of faces is also introduced. The results show that biometric templates would be in serious danger of being exposed when the secret key is known by an attacker, and the system would be under a serious threat as well. Due to its distinctiveness and performance, fingerprint is preferred among various biometric modalities in many settings. Most fingerprint recognition systems use minutiae information, which is an unordered collection of minutiae locations and orientations Some advanced template protection algorithms (such as fuzzy commitment and other modern cryptographic alternatives) require a fixed-length binary template. However, such a template protection method is not directly applicable to fingerprint minutiae representation which by its nature is of variable size. This dissertation introduces a novel and empirically validated framework that represents a minutiae set with a rotation invariant fixed-length vector and hence enables using biometric template protection methods for fingerprint recognition without signi cant loss in verification performance. The introduced framework is based on using local representations around each minutia as observations modeled by a Gaussian mixture model called a universal background model (UBM). For each fingerprint, we extract a fixed length super-vector of rst order statistics through alignment with the UBM. These super-vectors are then used for learning linear support vector machine (SVM) models per person for verifiation. In addition, the xed-length vector and the linear SVM model are both converted into binary hashes and the matching process is reduced to calculating the Hamming distance between them so that modern cryptographic alternatives based on homomorphic encryption can be applied for minutiae template protection.
Repository Staff Only: item control page