Enacting multi-layered citizenship: Turkey's Armenians' struggle for justice and equality
Rumelili, Bahar and Keyman, Fuat (2016) Enacting multi-layered citizenship: Turkey's Armenians' struggle for justice and equality. Citizenship Studies, 20 (1). pp. 67-83. ISSN 1362-1025 (Print) 1469-3593 (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2015.1107027
Throughout the history of the Turkish Republic, Turkey's Armenians have been subjected to a trade-off between the limited minority rights granted by the 1923 Lausanne Treaty and equal national citizenship. Traditionally a closed, depoliticized community, the citizenship practices of the Armenian minority have become increasingly differentiated in recent years. Building on a notion of citizenship as multi-layered and constituted through collective practice, this article investigates the implications of the political acts of Turkey's Armenian minority on sub-national and national citizenship in Turkey. We show that Turkey's Armenians are coupling rights demands, identification, normative references, and mobilization at the sub-national, national, and transnational levels in innovative ways, and are thereby negotiating different layers of citizenship in Turkey in a way that strengthens equal national citizenship.
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