Embedded 3D printing of cryogel-based scaffolds

Bilici, Çiğdem and Altunbek, Mine and Afghah, Ferdows and Tatar, Asena Gülenay and Koç, Bahattin (2023) Embedded 3D printing of cryogel-based scaffolds. ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering, 9 (8). pp. 5028-5038. ISSN 2373-9878

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Cryogel-based scaffolds have attracted great attention in tissue engineering due to their interconnected macroporous structures. However, three-dimensional (3D) printing of cryogels with a high degree of precision and complexity is a challenge, since the synthesis of cryogels occurs under cryogenic conditions. In this study, we demonstrated the fabrication of cryogel-based scaffolds for the first time by using an embedded printing technique. A photo-cross-linkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)-based ink composition, including alginate and photoinitiator, was printed into a nanoclay-based support bath. The layer-by-layer extruded ink was held in complex and overhanging structures with the help of pre-cross-linking of alginate with Ca2+ present in the support bath. The printed 3D structures in the support bath were frozen, and then GelMA was cross-linked at a subzero temperature under UV light. The printed and cross-linked structures were successfully recovered from the support bath with an integrated shape complexity. SEM images showed the formation of a 3D printed scaffold where porous GelMA cryogel was integrated between the cross-linked alginate hydrogels. In addition, they showed excellent shape recovery under uniaxial compression cycles of up to 80% strain. In vitro studies showed that the human fibroblast cells attached to the 3D printed scaffold and displayed spread morphology with a high proliferation rate. The results revealed that the embedded 3D printing technique enables the fabrication of cytocompatible cryogel based scaffolds with desired morphology and mechanical behavior using photo-cross-linkable bioink composition. The properties of the cryogels can be modified by varying the GelMA concentration, whereby various shapes of scaffolds can be fabricated to meet the specific requirements of tissue engineering applications.
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: alginate; cryogel; embedded 3D printing; GelMA; scaffold; self-recovery
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center
Depositing User: Mine Altunbek
Date Deposited: 02 Sep 2023 17:31
Last Modified: 02 Sep 2023 17:31
URI: https://research.sabanciuniv.edu/id/eprint/47638

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