Design and 3D printing of personalized hybrid and gradient structures for critical size bone defects

Altunbek, Mine and Afghah, Seyedeh Ferdows and Fallah, Ali and Acar, Anıl Ahmet and Koç, Bahattin (2023) Design and 3D printing of personalized hybrid and gradient structures for critical size bone defects. ACS Applied Bio Materials, 6 (5). pp. 1873-1885. ISSN 2576-6422

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)


Treating critical-size bone defects with autografts, allografts, or standardized implants is challenging since the healing of the defect area necessitates patient-specific grafts with mechanically and physiologically relevant structures. Three-dimensional (3D) printing using computer-aided design (CAD) is a promising approach for bone tissue engineering applications by producing constructs with customized designs and biomechanical compositions. In this study, we propose 3D printing of personalized and implantable hybrid active scaffolds with a unique architecture and biomaterial composition for critical-size bone defects. The proposed 3D hybrid construct was designed to have a gradient cell-laden poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel, which was surrounded by a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) cage structure to recapitulate the anatomical structure of the defective area. The optimized PCL cage design not only provides improved mechanical properties but also allows the diffusion of nutrients and medium through the scaffold. Three different designs including zigzag, zigzag/spiral, and zigzag/spiral with shifting the zigzag layers were evaluated to find an optimal architecture from a mechanical point of view and permeability that can provide the necessary mechanical strength and oxygen/nutrient diffusion, respectively. Mechanical properties were investigated experimentally and analytically using finite element analysis (FEA), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was used to determine the permeability of the structures. A hybrid scaffold was fabricated via 3D printing of the PCL cage structure and a PEG-based bioink comprising a varying number of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The gradient bioink was deposited inside the PCL cage through a microcapillary extrusion to generate a mineralized gradient structure. The zigzag/spiral design for the PCL cage was found to be mechanically strong with sufficient and optimum nutrient/gas axial and radial diffusion while the PEG-based hydrogel provided a biocompatible environment for hBMSC viability, differentiation, and mineralization. This study promises the production of personalized constructs for critical-size bone defects by printing different biomaterials and gradient cells with a hybrid design depending on the need for a donor site for implantation.
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 3D printing; gradient structures; hybrid printing; large bone defects; personalized scaffolds
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center
Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Research and Application Center
Depositing User: Mine Altunbek
Date Deposited: 06 Aug 2023 15:22
Last Modified: 06 Aug 2023 15:22

Actions (login required)

View Item
View Item