TCR-NK cells: a novel source for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer

Karahan, Zeynep Sena and Aras, Mertkaya and Sütlü, Tolga (2023) TCR-NK cells: a novel source for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer. Turkish Journal of Hematology, 40 (1). pp. 1-10. ISSN 1300-7777 (Print) 1308-5263 (Online)

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Antigen-specific retargeting of cytotoxic lymphocytes against tumor-associated antigens has thus far remained largely dependent on chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that can be constructed by the fusion of an extracellular targeting domain (classically a single-chain variable fragment from an antibody) fused with intracellular signaling domains to trigger activation of T or natural killer (NK) cells. A major limitation of CAR-based therapies is that this technology only allows for the targeting of antigens that would be located on the surface of target cells while non-surface antigens, which affect approximately three-fourths of all human genes, remain out of reach. The targeting of non-surface antigens is only possible using inherent T cell receptor (TCR) mechanisms. However, introducing a second TCR into T cells via genetic modification is problematic due to the heterodimeric nature of the TCR ligand-binding domain, which is composed of TCR α and β chains. It has been observed that the delivery of a second TCR α/β pair may lead to the mispairing of new TCR chains with the endogenously expressed ones and create mixed TCR dimers, and this has negatively affected the advancement of TCR-based T cell therapies. Recently, NK cells have been put forward as possible effectors for TCR gene therapy. Since NK cells do not endogenously express TCR chains, this seems to be an infallible approach to circumventing the problem of mispairing. Moreover, the similarity of intracellular signaling pathways and mechanisms of cytotoxicity between NK and T cells ensures that the triggering of antigen-specific responses by the TCR/CD3 complex can be used to induce antigen-specific cytotoxicity by TCR-modified NK (TCR-NK) cells. This review provides an overview of the initial studies of TCR-NK cells, identifies open questions in the field, and defines the place of this approach within the spectrum of adoptive immunotherapy techniques that rely on cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: CAR-T cells; Natural killer cells; T-cell receptor; TCR-NKcells
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences > Academic programs > Biological Sciences & Bio Eng.
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Depositing User: Mertkaya Aras
Date Deposited: 07 May 2023 20:08
Last Modified: 07 May 2023 20:08

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