SN 2009ip: constraints on the progenitor mass-loss rate

Ofek, E. O. and Lin, Lin and Kouveliotou, C. and Younes, G. and Göğüş, Ersin and Kasliwal, M. M. and Cao, Y. (2013) SN 2009ip: constraints on the progenitor mass-loss rate. Astrophysical Journal, 768 (1). ISSN 0004-637X (Print) 1538-4357 (Online)

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Some supernovae (SNe) show evidence for mass-loss events taking place prior to their explosions. Measuring their pre-outburst mass-loss rates provides essential information regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for these events. Here we present XMM-Newton and Swift X-ray observations taken after the latest, and presumably the final, outburst of SN 2009ip. We use these observations as well as new near-infrared and visible-light spectra and published radio and visible-light observations to put six independent order-of-magnitude constraints on the mass-loss rate of the SN progenitor prior to the explosion. Our methods utilize the X-ray luminosity, the bound-free absorption, the H alpha luminosity, the SN rise time, free-free absorption, and the bolometric luminosity of the outburst detected prior to the explosion. Assuming spherical mass loss with a wind-density profile, we estimate that the effective mass-loss rate from the progenitor was between 10(-3) and 10(-2) M-circle dot yr(-1), over a few years prior to the explosion, with a velocity of similar to 10(3) km s(-1). This mass-loss rate corresponds to a total circumstellar matter (CSM) mass of similar to 0.04 M-circle dot, within 6 x 10(15) cm of the SN. We note that the mass-loss rate estimate based on the H alpha luminosity is higher by an order of magnitude. This can be explained if the narrow-line H alpha component is generated at radii larger than the shock radius, or if the CSM has an aspherical geometry. We discuss simple geometries which are consistent with our results.
Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Article Number: 47
Uncontrolled Keywords: stars: mass-loss; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (SN 2009ip)
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy > QB460-466 Astrophysics
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences > Basic Sciences > Physics
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Depositing User: Ersin Göğüş
Date Deposited: 24 Jul 2013 10:19
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2019 14:45

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