Reciprocity in organizational behavior studies: a systematic literature review of contents, types, and directions
Gervasi, Deborah and Faldetta, Guglielmo and Pellegrini, Massimiliano Matteo and Maley, Jane (2021) Reciprocity in organizational behavior studies: a systematic literature review of contents, types, and directions. European Management Journal . ISSN 0263-2373 Published Online First http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2021.07.008
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2021.07.008
This study describes an attempt to develop an integrative model of reciprocity, specifically as it is used in the organizational behavior field. Three issues have been identified in the literature: (i) the overlap of different meanings for existing taxonomy of the norm of reciprocity; (ii) an underestimation of some aspects of reciprocity; and (iii) imprecise descriptions and predictions of constructs and behaviors inside the organizations. A systematic and rigorous literature review of the designated manuscripts is performed. Nine organizational constructs that use the norm of reciprocity as a critical mechanism to explain social relationships within the workplace have been identified. A comprehensive classification for the notion and features of reciprocity is offered, which helps deliver a precise and novel map of the field. Moreover, it isolates three main distinctions, namely contents of the acts that are given and received; the type of exchange; and the subjects to whom reciprocity is directed, offering a novel interpretative framework of the norm of reciprocity. This research tries to overcome the ambiguity that characterizes how reciprocity is defined, classified, and used in the organizational behaviors field. Finally, it analyzes how different organizational behavior constructs use the different notions and features of reciprocity. This endeavor helps to create a precise map of the field of organizational behavior through a novel framework highlighting underdeveloped areas for future research attention.
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