A Dyson sphere around a black hole
Tiger Yu-Yang , Hsiao and Tomotsugu, Goto and Tetsuya , Hashimoto and Daryl Joe D., Santos and Alvina Y. L., On and Kilerci Eser, Ece and Yi Hang Valerie, Wong and Seong Jin, Kim and Cossas K-W, Wu and Simon C-C, Ho and Ting-Yi , Lu (2021) A Dyson sphere around a black hole. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 506 (2). pp. 1723-1732. ISSN 0035-8711 (Print) 1365-2966 (Online)
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab1832
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been conducted for nearly 60 yr. A Dyson sphere, a spherical structure that surrounds a star and transports its radiative energy outwards as an energy source for an advanced civilization, is one of the main targets of SETI. In this study, we discuss whether building a Dyson sphere around a black hole is effective. We consider six energy sources: (i) the cosmic microwave background, (ii) the Hawking radiation, (iii) an accretion disc, (iv) Bondi accretion, (v) a corona, and (vi) relativistic jets. To develop future civilizations (for example, a Type II civilization), 4×1026W(1L⊙) is expected to be needed. Among (iii) to (vi), the largest luminosity can be collected from an accretion disc, reaching 105L⊙, enough to maintain a Type II civilization. Moreover, if a Dyson sphere collects not only the electromagnetic radiation but also other types of energy (e.g. kinetic energy) from the jets, the total collected energy would be approximately 5 times larger. Considering the emission from a Dyson sphere, our results show that the Dyson sphere around a stellar-mass black hole in the Milky Way (10kpc away from us) is detectable in the ultraviolet (10−400nm), optical (400−760nm), near-infrared (760nm−5μm), and mid-infrared (5−40μm) wavelengths via the waste heat radiation using current telescopes such as Galaxy Evolution Explorer Ultraviolet Sky Surveys. Performing model fitting to observed spectral energy distributions and measuring the variability of radial velocity may help us to identify these possible artificial structures.
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