The HEXACO-100 across 16 languages: a large-scale test of measurement invariance
Thielmann, Isabel and Akrami, Nazar and Babarović, Toni and Belloch, Amparo and Bergh, Robin and Chirumbolo, Antonio and Čolović, Petar and De Vries, Reinout E. and Dostál, Daniel and Egorova, Marina and Gnisci, Augusto and Heydasch, Timo and Hilbig, Benjamin E. and Hsu, Kung-Yu and Izdebski, Pawel and Leone, Luigi and Marcus, Bernd and Mededovic, Janko and Nagy, Janos and Parshikova, Oksana and Perugini, Marco and Petrovic, Boban and Romero, Estrella and Sergi, Ida and Shin, Kang-Hyun and Smederevac, Snezana and Sverko, Iva and Szarota, Piotr and Szirmak, Zsofia and Tatar, Arkun and Wakabayashi, Akio and Wasti, Arzu S. and Zaskodna, Tereza and Zettler, Ingo and Ashton, Michael C. and Lee, Kibeom (2020) The HEXACO-100 across 16 languages: a large-scale test of measurement invariance. Journal of Personality Assessment, 102 (5). pp. 714-726. ISSN 0022-3891 (Print) 1532-7752 (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2019.1614011
The HEXACO Personality Inventory–Revised (HEXACO–PI–R) has become one of the most heavily applied measurement tools for the assessment of basic personality traits. Correspondingly, the inventory has been translated to many languages for use in cross-cultural research. However, formal tests examining whether the different language versions of the HEXACO–PI–R provide equivalent measures of the 6 personality dimensions are missing. We provide a large-scale test of measurement invariance of the 100-item version of the HEXACO–PI–R across 16 languages spoken in European and Asian countries (N = 30,484). Multigroup exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analyses revealed consistent support for configural and metric invariance, thus implying that the factor structure of the HEXACO dimensions as well as the meaning of the latent HEXACO factors is comparable across languages. However, analyses did not show overall support for scalar invariance; that is, equivalence of facet intercepts. A complementary alignment analysis supported this pattern, but also revealed substantial heterogeneity in the level of (non)invariance across facets and factors. Overall, results imply that the HEXACO–PI–R provides largely comparable measurement of the HEXACO dimensions, although the lack of scalar invariance highlights the necessity for future research clarifying the interpretation of mean-level trait differences across countries.
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