How efficient airways act as role models and in what dimensions? A superefficiency DEA model enhanced by social network analysis
Aydın, Umut and Karadayı, Melis Almula and Ülengin, Füsun (2019) How efficient airways act as role models and in what dimensions? A superefficiency DEA model enhanced by social network analysis. Journal of Air Transport Management . ISSN 0969-6997 (Print) 1873-2089 (Online) Published Online First http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2019.101725
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2019.101725
In this empirical study, a five-stage methodology is used to examine the efficiency of 45 worldwide known airline companies from the financial, operation and marketing perspectives. Initially, the superefficient data envelopment model is run with inputs and outputs that are selected based on the literature review. However, because 21 out of 45 airline companies are found to be efficient based on this analysis, a stepwise regression-based mechanism is applied to four reduced models – one for each output variable – for better discrimination. The outputs are, namely, net profit margin (financial output), passengers carried, on-time departure performance (operational outputs), and customer satisfaction (marketing output). In this way, the significant input variables are found for each reduced model. In the third stage, in order to provide even more discrimination, social network-based eigenvector centrality values are used as the weights of the superefficiency scores, and the strengths and weaknesses of efficient airlines for each output are specified in terms of their related significant inputs. The results show that, when net profit margin is taken as an output, Vietnam Airlines has the top weighted superefficiency value and excels in terms of available seat kilometers and liquidity, but it should improve its debt level. Although Norwegian Airlines has the highest efficiency with respect to debt level, it is not the best role model because its eigenvector centrality value is relatively low. However, Norwegian airlines also has the highest weighted superefficiency and acts as a role model in terms of on-time departures with respect to this output. Its main strength is liquidity, and it has no significant weaknesses. On the other hand, in terms of overall satisfaction and passengers carried, Vietnam Airlines and Thai Airways are the leaders, respectively. Vietnam Airlines is the only superefficient company with respect to overall satisfaction, while the basic strengths of Thai Airways in terms of passengers carried are its employee and fleet, and it has no significant weakness. A final aggregation of the results is made by making pairwise comparisons of the relative importance of four outputs for 7 experts selected from different departments of airline companies. According to the results, Net Profit Margin has the highest priority, followed by On-time Departure and Overall Customer Satisfaction, while passengers carried has the lowest importance. Based on these relative priorities, it can be said that Vietnam Airlines can be accepted as the top performing airline company, followed by Norwegian Airlines.
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