Liposomal incorporation to improve dissolution and stability of rosmarinic acid and carvacrol extracted from oregano (O. onites L.)
Baranauskaite, Juste and Duman, Gülengül and Çorapcıoğlu, Gülcan and Baranauskas , Algirdas and Taralp, Alpay and Ivanauskas, Liudas and Bernatoniene, Jurga (2018) Liposomal incorporation to improve dissolution and stability of rosmarinic acid and carvacrol extracted from oregano (O. onites L.). BioMed Research International . ISSN 2314-6133 (Print) 2314-6141 (Online)
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6147315
The potential antimicrobial benefit of high levels of rosmarinic acid (RA) and carvacrol (CA) in oregano (O. onites L.) extract has been limited until now by poor bioavailability arising from the low aqueous-phase solubility and slow dissolution behaviour of the lyophilized extract (E). To address this issue, various ratios of phospholipon 90H (P90H) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol), sodium salt (DMPG) were sonicated, yielding four empty liposomes (L1, L2, L3, and L90). After an initial selection process, Turkish oregano extract was internalized into the more promising candidates. Each empty liposome, extract-loaded liposome (LE1, LE2, and LE3), and freeze-dried control (E) was assessed in terms of structure, composition, RA and CA dissolution profile, storage stability, and, when relevant, zeta potential. Empty liposome L1, which was prepared using P90H and DMPG in a 1:1 ratio, displayed the most convenient encapsulation traits among the four unloaded types. Loaded liposome LE1, obtained by combining oregano extract and L1 in a 1:1 ratio, proved superior as a vehicle to deliver RA & CA when compared against control freeze-dried E and test liposomes LE2 and LE3. Dissolution profiles of the active compounds RA and CA in loaded liposomes were determined using a semi-automated dissolution tester. The basket method was applied using artificial gastric juice without pepsin (AGJ, 50rpm, 500mL). The pH value was maintained at 1.5 (37 +/- 0.5 degrees C). Aliquots (5ml) were manually extracted from parallel dissolution vessels at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60-minute time points. Dissolution tests, run to completion on LE1, showed that approximately 99% of loaded CA and 88% of RA had been released. Shorter dissolution times were also noted in using LE1. In particular, the release profile of CA and RA had levelled off after only 25 minutes, respectively, depicting an impressive 3.0-3.3 and 2.3-2.6 rate increase compared to the freeze-dried control extract. The improved dispersibility of RA and CA in the form of LE1 was supported by particle size and zeta potential measurements of the liposome, yielding 234.3nm and -30.9mV, respectively. The polydispersity index value was 0.35, indicating a reasonable particle size distribution. To study storage stability, liposomes were stored (4 degrees C, 6 months) in amber coloured glass containers (4 oz.). Each container held 30 capsules, which were stored according to the ICH guidelines prescribed for long-term storage (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C; 60% +/- 5% RH). Triplicate samples were with drawn after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months for analysis. Lastly, LE1 displayed good storage stability. The results imply that RA and CA can be conveniently and routinely delivered via oral and mucosal routes by first internalizing oregano extracts into appropriately engineered liposomes.
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