A DROIC based on PFM ADCs employing over-integration for error shaping
Abbasi, Shahbaz and Ceylan, Ömer and Gürbüz, Yaşar (2019) A DROIC based on PFM ADCs employing over-integration for error shaping. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers . ISSN 1549-8328 (Print) 1558-0806 (Online)
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2019.2914191
This paper presents a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) for small pitch medium-wave infrared (MWIR) starring focal plane arrays (FPAs). To overcome the limited in-pixel resolution of such DROICs, the concept of error shaping is introduced in pulse frequency modulation (PFM)-based pixels. Multiple integration operations are performed in a single frame and the residue charge from each integration phase is retained and injected into the next charge packet. This over-integration routine provides a high pass noise transfer function (NTF) equivalent to what is obtained in a first order sigma delta modulator. The concise structure of a PFM analog-to-digital converter (ADC) lends itself well to such an operation inside the pixel, while consuming low power. Along with a theoretical analysis of the technique, a prototype based on a 16x16 array and sinc decimation filters is developed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed DROIC. With an in-pixel resolution of 5 bits and over-integration ratio (OIR) of 128, 395 noise electrons are demonstrated at full-well fill from the test array fabricated in a 90 nm bulk-CMOS process.
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