Efficient and secure schemes for private function evaluation
Bingöl, Muhammed Ali (2019) Efficient and secure schemes for private function evaluation. [Thesis]
Development of computing devices with the proliferation of the Internet has prompted enormous opportunities for cooperative computation. These computations could occur between trusted or partially trusted partners, or even between competitors. Secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocols allow two or more parties to collaborate and compute a public functionality using their private inputs without the need for a trusted third-party. However, the generic solutions for MPC are not adequate for some particular cases where the function itself is also sensitive and required to be kept private. Private function evaluation (PFE) is a special case of MPC, where the function to be computed is known by only one party. PFE is useful in several real-life applications where an algorithm or a function itself needs to remain secret for reasons such as protecting intellectual property or security classification level. Recently, designing efficient PFE protocols have been a challenging and attractive task for cryptography researchers. iv In this dissertation, we mainly focus on improving two-party private function evaluation (2PFE) schemes. Our primary goal is enhancing the state-of-the-art by designing secure and cost-efficient 2PFE protocols for both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography based solutions. In this respect, we first aim to improve 2PFE protocols based on (mostly) symmetric cryptographic primitives. We look back at the seminal PFE framework presented by Mohassel and Sadeghian at Eurocrypt'13. We show how to adapt and utilize the well-known half gates garbling technique (Zahur et al., Eurocrypt'15) to their constant round 2PFE scheme. Compared to their scheme, our resulting optimization significantly improves both underlying oblivious extended permutation (OEP) and secure 2-party computation (2PC) protocols, and yields a more than 40% reduction in overall communication cost. We next propose a novel and highly efficient 2PFE scheme based on the decisional Di e-Hellman (DDH) assumption. Our scheme consists of two protocols, one is utilized in the initial execution, and the other is in the subsequent runs. One of the novelties of our scheme over the state-of-the-art is that it results in a significant cost reduction when the same private function is evaluated more than once between the same or varying parties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most efficient and the first 2PFE scheme that enjoys reusability feature. Our protocols achieve linear communication and computation complexities, and a constant number of rounds which is at most three (depending on the size of the inputs of the party that holds the function).
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