Spreading and transport properties of quantum walks
Yalçınkaya, İskender (2016) Spreading and transport properties of quantum walks. [Thesis]
Quantum computing aims to harness and exploit the quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition, entanglement and contextuality in order to encode and process information. In this context, quantum walks, which has been suggested as the quantum counterpart of classical random walks, is an emerging topic in quantum computing that provides powerful techniques for developing new quantum algorithms, quantum simulation and quantum state transfer. This thesis intends to investigate the properties of quantum walks which may potentially promote further work in such techniques in quantum computation. We first propose a novel method for transferring arbitrary unknown qubit state between two points in space with quantum walk architecture. We determine the cases providing perfect state transfers over both finite and infinite lattices with different boundary conditions and we introduce recovery operators assisting the transfer process. Next, by modeling the incoherent and coherent transport with classical random walks and quantum walks, respectively, we calculate the transport efficiencies over an explosive percolation lattice. We show that the minimal correlation between discrete clusters leads to maximal localizations which originating from random scatterings. These localization effects, however, are rather small when compared to the supportive effect of the abrupt growth of the largest cluster on transport efficiency, which eventually allows us to obtain more efficient transports in case of minimal correlations. We support our results with further calculations on whether the eigenstates of the systems we study are localized or not. Lastly, we turn our attention to the spreading dynamics and the coin-position entanglement for two-dimensional quantum walks under an artificial magnetic fields by introducing Peierls phases to the system. In particular, we show that the spreading of the quantum walk is diffusive rather than ballistic when the ratio of the magnetic flux through unit cell - where the walk takes place - to the flux quantum is an irrational number. On the contrary, the walk recovers its original ballistic behavior when this ratio is chosen to be a rational number. Furthermore, we demonstrate that coin-position entanglement is nearly maximum under an artificial magnetic field, even for large number of steps.
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