Analysis of deterioration phenomena in a Koran by 19th century Ottoman calligrapher Mehmed Şevki
Kural, Nurçin and Ünlü, Cüneyt and Grupce, Orhideja and Bakan, Feray and Sezen, Meltem (2017) Analysis of deterioration phenomena in a Koran by 19th century Ottoman calligrapher Mehmed Şevki. (Accepted/In Press)
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Official URL: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/rest#
The Koran, written by Mehmed Şevki is the subject of this comparative analysis, due to the display of an extraordinary degree of deterioration in 28 folios, while the rest of the manuscript was in a considerably better condition. The aforementioned deteriorated sections of the book is brittle and much darker in colour compared to the rest of the manuscript. The possible cause for this condition is inquired using complementary techniques including Micro-chemical (spot) tests, SEM-EDS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Micro-chemical Hertzberg test indicated rag fibres in the paper used for the Koran, while Raspail test #1 revealed rosin onlyin the sizing material of deteriorated folios. SEM-EDS identified the presence of iron in all layers of the deteriorated folios but not in the stable ones. These results subsequently led to the conclusion that the deterioration of the folios was related to the acid-catalysed hydrolysis due to the presence of rosin and oxidation processes promoted by iron. This find was also supported by FTIR analyses, indicating iron scheme oxidation took place. The analysis indicated that different sizing materials were used in papermaking process of two types of folios. In addition, Raman, EDS and HPLC techniques were applied in characterization of the inks and dyes. The results showed that inks and pigments were consistent throughout the integral text, thus suggesting calligrapher Mehmed Şevki and illuminator Hüseyin processed the book continually. It is plausible that calligrapher Mehmed Şevki changed paper supply during the Koran writing resulting in different paper qualities.
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