From genetics to functional genomics: improvement in drought signaling and tolerance in wheat
Budak, Hikmet and Hussain, Babar and Khan, Zaeema and Öztürk, Neslihan Z. and Ullah, Naimat (2015) From genetics to functional genomics: improvement in drought signaling and tolerance in wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6 . ISSN 1664-462X (Print) 1664-462X (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.01012
Drought being a yield limiting factor has become a major threat to international food security. It is a complex trait and drought tolerance response is carried out by various genes, transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), hormones, proteins, co-factors, ions, and metabolites. This complexity has limited the development of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance by classical breeding. However, attempts have been made to fill the lost genetic diversity by crossing wheat with wild wheat relatives. In recent years, several molecular markers including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with genes for drought signaling pathways have been reported. Screening of large wheat collections by marker assisted selection (MAS) and transformation of wheat with different genes/TFs has improved drought signaling pathways and tolerance. Several miRNAs also provide drought tolerance to wheat by regulating various TFs/genes. Emergence of OMICS techniques including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics has helped to identify and characterize the genes, proteins, metabolites, and ions involved in drought signaling pathways. Together, all these efforts helped in understanding the complex drought tolerance mechanism. Here, we have reviewed the advances in wide hybridization, MAS, QTL mapping, miRNAs, transgenic technique, genome editing system, and above mentioned functional genomics tools for identification and utility of signaling molecules for improvement in wheat drought tolerance.
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