Are guanxi-type supervisor-subordinate relationships culture-general? An eight-nation test of measurement invariance
Smith, Peter B. and Wasti, Arzu S. and Grigoryan, Lucine and Achoui, Mustafa and Bedford, Olwen and Budhwar, Pawan and Lebedeva, Nadya and Leong, Chan Hoong and Torres, Claudio (2014) Are guanxi-type supervisor-subordinate relationships culture-general? An eight-nation test of measurement invariance. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 45 (6). pp. 921-938. ISSN 0022-0221 (Print) 1552-5422 (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022114530496
Three dimensions of subordinate-supervisor relations (affective attachment, deference to supervisor, and personal-life inclusion) that had been found by Y. Chen, Friedman, Yu, Fang, and Lu to be characteristic of a guanxi relationship between subordinates and their supervisors in China were surveyed in Taiwan, Singapore, and six non-Chinese cultural contexts. The Affective Attachment and Deference subscales demonstrated full metric invariance whereas the Personal-Life Inclusion subscale was found to have partial metric invariance across all eight samples. Structural equation modeling revealed that the affective attachment dimension had a cross-nationally invariant positive relationship to affective organizational commitment and a negative relationship to turnover intention. The deference to the supervisor dimension had invariant positive relationships with both affective and normative organizational commitment. The personal-life inclusion dimension was unrelated to all outcomes. These results indicate the relevance of aspects of guanxi to superior-subordinate relations in non-Chinese cultures. Studies of indigenous concepts can contribute to a broader understanding of organizational behavior.
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