Xylem exudate composition and root-to-shoot nickel translocation in Alyssum species
Tiziana, Centofanti and Sayers, Zehra and Cabello-Conejo, Maria Isabel and Kidd, Petra and Nishizawa, Naoko K. and Kakei, Yusuke and Davis, Allen P. and Sicher, Richard C. and Chaney, Rufus L. (2013) Xylem exudate composition and root-to-shoot nickel translocation in Alyssum species. Plant and Soil, 373 (1-2). pp. 59-75. ISSN 0032-079X (Print) 1573-5036 (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1782-1
An improved understanding of the Ni root-to-shoot translocation mechanism in hyperaccumulators is necessary to increase Ni uptake efficiency for phytoextraction technologies. It has been presumed that an important aspect of Ni translocation and storage involves chelation with organic ligands. It has been reported that exposing several Ni hyperaccumulator species of Alyssum to Ni elicited a large increase in the histidine level of the xylem sap. In later studies it was shown that as time progressed the histidine:Ni ratio dropped considerably. Moreover, previous studies analyzed the relationship between Ni and ligands in plants that were exposed to Ni only for a few hours and therefore obtained results that are unlikely to represent field soils where plants are at steady-state Ni uptake. The aim of this study was to understand the quantitative relationship between Ni and organic ligands in the xylem sap of various Alyssum genotypes or species that reached steady-state Ni uptake after being exposed to Ni in either nutrient solution or serpentine soil for up to 6 weeks. Total Ni concentration, 17 amino acids, 9 organic acids, and nicotianamine were measured in xylem sap of 100-day old plants of Alyssum. Results showed that the concentration of Ni in xylem sap of various Alyssum genotypes was 10-100 fold higher than the concentration of histidine, malate, citrate, and nicotianamine, which were the predominant Ni ligands measured in the sap. When the physiology of the whole plant is taken into account, our results indicate that the concentration of organic chelators is too low to account for the complexation of all the Ni present in the xylem sap of Alyssum at steady-state Ni hyperaccumulation, and suggest that most of the Ni in xylem sap of this species is present as the hydrated cation.
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