Evolution of carbon microstructures during the pyrolysis of Turkish Elbistan lignite in the temperature range of 700-1000 degrees C
Sakintuna, Billur and Yürüm, Yuda and Çetinkaya, Sevil (2004) Evolution of carbon microstructures during the pyrolysis of Turkish Elbistan lignite in the temperature range of 700-1000 degrees C. Energy and Fuels, 18 (3). pp. 883-888. ISSN 0887-0624
Chars and activated carbons were produced from raw, HCl-washed, and HCl/HF-washed Elbistan lignites at 700 C, 800 C, 900 C, and 1000 C. The pyrolysis and activation reactions increased the BET areas (m2/g carbon) of the acid-washed samples almost 10-fold. The increase of the BET areas (m2/g carbon) by increasing the temperature of pyrolysis or activation from 700 C to 1000 C was explained with the burn-out of carbon which led to the development of porosity. The values of the stacking heights, Lc of HCl/HF-washed samples seemed to increase from 1.0 nm to 1.5 nm, the average number of graphene sheets increased from 2.8 to 4.4, and the lateral size of the crystallites, La, increased very faintly from 5.0 nm to 5.5 nm when the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 700 C to 1000 C. Activation reactions performed at the same temperature range did not change the stacking heights. The values of Lc for activated HCl/HF-washed samples stayed almost constant in the same range as for the carbonized samples within 1.0-1.5 nm. This indicated that oxidative reactions during activation did not alter the stacking heights of the crystallites significantly in the temperature range of 700-1000 C. The results presented in the present work can be considered as indications for the development of turbostratic (fully disordered) structures in the temperature range of 700-1000 C.
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