The emergence and evolution of the defense cooperation in European Union: permanent structured cooperation (Pesco)
Keskin, Miray (2018) The emergence and evolution of the defense cooperation in European Union: permanent structured cooperation (Pesco). [Thesis]
The European Union (EU) as a sui generis entity covers many different policies from economic to political issues. Today, the EU plays a significant role in world politics, and it expertly shapes essential developments in the international area. The thesis focuses on one of the most controversial policies of the EU, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The Maastricht Treaty established the three-pillar structure which contains the CFSP in its second pillar-1992, this policy has had a significant place on the EU’s agenda. Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) is a recent development that occurs under the CFSP. It is a defense organization which has been agreed among 25 EU member states, and it has binding commitments for the members. Due to its binding nature, PESCO is a historical development within the EU in terms of security policy. The thesis argues that increasing material security interests of the Union, encourages the formation of PESCO as a new defense organization. In this context, the argument helps us to understand the role of material security interests in the evolution of CFSP and its final stop, PESCO. First and foremost, it is important to indicate a theoretical framework with Liberal Intergovernmentalism which is one of the leading theories that explains the European integration process. Understanding this unique development of the CFSP and the primary analysis will be based on this framework. In this context, it examines the evolution of European security arrangements chronologically. Due to the dominance of the realist paradigm in the international system, the interests of states have had a central position, especially on foreign and security issues. Taking collective action in these policy areas among EU member states is much harder than on low political matters such as the economy. That is why it is hard to examine an entirely successful performance within the EU regarding CFSP practices. In this regard, this thesis will also discuss that “Will PESCO be effective?” and “What motivates it?” Before the conclusion, the thesis also examines the role of Turkey on the EU’s security arrangements and Turkey’s position towards PESCO by regarding its project-based characteristics and try to cover the impact of PESCO on Turkey’s accession to the EU.
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