Design and fabrication of silicone-based composite tissue-mimicking phantoms for medical training
Gül, Burçin (2018) Design and fabrication of silicone-based composite tissue-mimicking phantoms for medical training. [Thesis]
Silicone-based composite phantoms were fabricated to be used as an education model in medical training. A matrix of silicone formulations was tracked to mimic the ultrasonography, mammography, surgical, and microsurgical responses of different human tissue and organs. The performance of two different additives: i) silicone oil and ii) vinyl-terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were monitored with the acoustic setup and evaluated by the surgeons. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women, and early diagnosis significantly improves the patient outcomes. The surgeons-in-training necessitate the vast amount of practice to facilitate a noteworthy contribution to this outcome. Therefore, breast simulation models that contain skin layer, inner breast tissue, and tumor structures which allow the collection of samples with biopsy needle were fabricated to be used in ultrasonography, as well as mammography models to be used in tumor diagnostics, and breast oncoplasty models for surgeons to practice their suturing skills. Development of microsurgical techniques signifies a foremost advance in the intervention of the injured peripheral nerves and with the aid of the operating microscopes; it is possible to evaluate the severity of the neural trauma. The advanced microsurgical skills of surgeons are essential for the success of the microsurgery, and in turn for the preservation of the nerve continuity. With this motive, a peripheral nerve phantom that contains skin layer, fascia tissue, epineurium, connective tissue, the fascicles, and the muscle layer has been designed. Herein, we highlight the fabrication of a realistic, durable, accessible, and cost-effective training platform that contains breast ultrasonography, mammography, and oncoplasty models, as well as peripheral nerve with complex hierarchical layers. For training purposes, closest media to reality, fresh cadavers, are hard to obtain due to their price and/or unavailability. Hence, a variety of synthetic tissues were also designed through the optimization of formulations of silicone. Surgical simulation models that mimic various human tissue and organs such as i) multi layers of skin, ii) axilla and axillary lymph nodes, iii) veins, iv) isthmus of the thyroid gland, cricoid cartilage, tongue, larynx, esophagus, tracheal rings, and bronchial tree for the tracheostomy and bronchoscopy models were fabricated.
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