The bread and the cross: an empirical analysis of religious discrimination in the egyptian labor market
Mohamed, Ahmed Ezzeldin Abdalla (2014) The bread and the cross: an empirical analysis of religious discrimination in the egyptian labor market. [Thesis]
Do Christians face discrimination in the Egyptian labor market? In the last few years, religious discrimination in the Egyptian labor market has been an ongoing debate between the Egyptian government, Christian activists, and international observers. Yet, no systemic empirical study of the issue was provided to enrich the debate with concrete objective evidence. As a result, this paper aims at filling this gap by empirically examining religious discrimination in wages, receipt of non-pecuniary benefits, working conditions, and access to different tracks of employment. Using recent data from the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS 2012), this study employs a set of econometric techniques including OLS regression analysis, propensity score matching, Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, and probit models to determine the forms and extent of religious discrimination in the labor market. Our findings suggest that Christians do not face discrimination in wages, receipt of job’s non-pecuniary benefits, and working conditions. However, Christians have a disadvantage in access to wage employment in general, and government employment in particular, proposing religious discrimination as a possible explanation. These results enlighten the debate by defining the areas where discrimination is taking place and policies are needed.
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