SiGe BiCMOS ICs for X-Band 7-Bit T/R module with high precision amplitude and phase control
Davulcu, Murat (2015) SiGe BiCMOS ICs for X-Band 7-Bit T/R module with high precision amplitude and phase control. [Thesis]
Over the last few decades, phased array radar systems had been utilizing Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules implemented in III-V semiconductor based technologies. However, their high cost, size, weight and low integration capability created a demand for seeking alternative solutions to realize T/R modules. In recent years, SiGe BiCMOS technologies are rapidly growing their popularity in T/R module applications by virtue of meeting high performance requirements with more reduced cost and power dissipation with respect to III-V technologies. The next generation phased array radar systems require a great number of fully integrated, high yield, small-scale and high accuracy T/R modules. In line with these trends, this thesis presents the design and implementation of the first and only 7-Bit X-Band T/R module with high precision amplitude and phase control in the open literature, which is realized in IHP 0.25μ SiGe BiCMOS technology. In the scope of this thesis, sub-blocks of the designed T/R module such as low noise amplifier (LNA), inter-stage amplifier, SiGe Hetero-Junction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) Single- Pole Double-Throw (SPDT) switch and 7-Bit digitally controlled step attenuator are extensively discussed. The designed LNA exhibits Noise Figure (NF) of 1.7 dB, gain of 23 dB, Output Referred Compression Point (OP1dB) of 16 dBm while the inter-stage amplifier gives measured NF of 3 dB, gain of 15 dB and OP1dB of 18 dBm. Moreover, the designed SPDT switch has an Insertion Loss (IL) of 1.7 dB, isolation of 40 dB and OP1dB of 28 dBm. Lastly, the designed 7-Bit SiGe HBT digitally controlled step attenuator demonstrates IL of 8 dB, RMS attenuation error of 0.18 dB, RMS phase error of 2° and OP1dB of 16 dBm. The 7-Bit T/R module is constructed by using the sub-blocks given above, along with a 7- Bit phase shifter (PS) and a power amplifier (PA). Post-layout simulation results show that the designed T/R module exhibits a gain of 38 dB, RMS phase error of 2.6°, RMS amplitude error of 0.82 dB and Rx-Tx isolation of 80 dB across X-Band. The layout of T/R module occupies an area of 11.37 mm2.
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