Dynamic control of wireless networks with confidential communications
Sarıkaya, Yunus (2014) Dynamic control of wireless networks with confidential communications. [Thesis]
Future wireless communication systems are rapidly transforming to satisfy everincreasing and varying mobile user demands. Cross-layer networking protocols have the potential to play a crucial role in this transformation by jointly addressing the requirements of user applications together with the time-varying nature of wireless networking. As wireless communications becoming an integral and crucial part of our daily lives with many of our personal data is being shared via wireless transmissions, the issue of keeping personal transactions confidential is at the forefront of any network design. Wireless communications is especially prone to attacks due to its broadcast nature. The conventional cryptographical methods can only guarantee secrecy with the assumption that it is computationally prohibitive for the eavesdroppers to decode the messages. On the other hand, information-theoretical secrecy as defined by Shannon in his seminal work has the potential to provide perfect secrecy regardless of the computational power of the eavesdropper. Recent studies has shown that information-theoretical secrecy is possible over noisy wireless channels. In this thesis, we aim to design simple yet provably optimal cross-layer algorithms taking into account information-theoretical secrecy as a Quality of Service (QoS) requirement. Our work has the potential to improve our understanding the interplay between the secrecy and networking protocols. In most of this thesis, we consider a wireless cellular architecture, where all nodes participate in communication with a base station. When a node is transmitting a confidential messages, other legitimate nodes are considered as eavesdroppers, i.e., all eavesdroppers are internal. We characterize the region of achievable open and confidential data rate pairs for a single and then a multi-node scenario. We define the notion of confidential opportunistic scheduler, which schedules a node that has the largest instantaneous confidential information rate, with respect to the best eavesdropper node, which has the largest mean cross-channel rate. Having defined the operational limits of the system, we then develop dynamic joint scheduling and flow control algorithms when perfect and imperfect channel state information (CSI) is available. The developed algorithms are simple index policies, in which scheduling and flow control decisions are given in each time instant independently. In real networks, instantaneous CSI is usually unavailable due to computational and communication overheads associated with obtaining this information. Hence, we generalize our model for the case where only the distributions of direct- and crosschannel CSI are available at the transmitter. In order to provide end-to-end reliability, Hybrid Automatic Retransmission reQuest (HARQ) is employed. The challenge of using HARQ is that the dynamic control policies proposed in the preceding chapter are no longer optimal, since the decisions at each time instant are no longer independent. This is mainly due to the potential of re-transmitting a variant of the same message successively until it is decoded at the base station. We solve this critical issue by proposing a novel queuing model, in which the messages transmitted the same number of times previously are stored in the same queue with scheduler selecting a head-of-line message from these queues. We prove that with this novel queuing model, the dynamic control algorithms can still be optimal. We then shift our attention to providing confidentiality in multi-hop wireless networks, where there are multiple source-destination pairs communicating confidential messages, to be kept confidential from the intermediate nodes. For this case, we propose a novel end-to-end encoding scheme, where the confidential information is encoded into one very long message. The encoded message is then divided into multiple packets, to be combined at the ultimate destination for recovery, and being sent over different paths so that each intermediate node only has partial view of the whole message. Based on the proposed end-to-end encoding scheme, we develop two different dynamic policies when the encoded message is finite and asymptotically large, respectively. When the encoded message has finite length, our proposed policy chooses the encoding rates for each message, based on the instantaneous channel state information, queue states and secrecy requirements. Also, the nodes keep account of the information leaked to intermediate nodes as well the information reaching the destination in order to provide confidentiality and reliability. We demonstrate via simulations that our policy has a performance asymptotically approaching that of the optimal policy with increasing length of the encoded message. All preceding work assumes that the nodes are altruistic and/or well-behaved, i.e., they cooperatively participate into the communication of the confidential messages. In the final chapter of the thesis, we investigate the case with non-altruistic nodes, where non-altruistic nodes provide a jamming service to nodes with confidential communication needs and receiving in turn the right to access to the channel. We develop optimal resource allocation and power control algorithms maximizing the aggregate utility of both nodes with confidential communication needs as well as the nodes providing jamming service.
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