The wind nebula around magnetar swift J1834.9-0846
Younes, G. and Kouveliotou, C. and Kargaltsev, O. and Gill, R. and Granot, J. and Watts, A. L. and Gelfand, J. and Baring, M. G. and Harding, A. and Pavlov, G. G. and Van Der Horst, A. J. and Huppenkothen, D. and Göğüş, Ersin and Lin, L. and Roberts, O. J. (2016) The wind nebula around magnetar swift J1834.9-0846. Astrophysical Journal, 824 (2). ISSN 0004-637X (Print) 1538-4357 (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/824/2/138
We report on the analysis of two deep XMM-Newton observations of the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846 and its surrounding extended emission taken in 2014 March and October, 2.5 and 3.1 yr after the source went into outburst. The magnetar is only weakly detected in the first observation, with an absorption-corrected flux F0.5-10 keV approximate to 4 x 10(-14) erg s(-1) cm 2 and a 3 sigma upper limit during the second observation of about 3 x 10(-14) erg s(-1) cm. This flux level is more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than the flux measured at the outburst onset in 2011 September. The extended emission, centered at the magnetar position and elongated toward the southwest, is clearly seen in both observations; it is best fit by a highly absorbed power law (PL), with a hydrogen column density of N-H = 8.0 x 1022 cm(-2) and PL photon index Gamma = 2.2 +/- 0.2. Its flux is constant between the two observations at F0.5-10 keV = 1.3 x 10(-12) erg s-1 cm(-2). We find no statistically significant changes in the spectral shape or the flux of this extended emission over a period of 9 yr from 2005 to 2014. These new results strongly support the extended emission nature as a wind nebula and firmly establish Swift J1834.9-0846 as the first magnetar to show a surrounding wind nebula. Further, our results imply that such nebulae are no longer exclusive to rotation-powered pulsars and narrow the gap between these two subpopulations of isolated neutron stars. The size and spectrum of the nebula are compatible with those of pulsar-wind nebulae, but its radiative efficiency eta(x) = L-x/E 0.1 is markedly high, possibly pointing to an additional wind component in Swift J1834.9-0846.
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