Iron fist of a soft power: an analysis of the use of restrictive measures (economic sanctions) by the European Union
Çatır, Büşra (2014) Iron fist of a soft power: an analysis of the use of restrictive measures (economic sanctions) by the European Union. [Thesis]
The European Union (EU) in world politics is traditionally characterized as a 'soft power' due to reliance on diplomatic measures rather than military force in its relations with the rest of the world. However, since the 1980s the EU has been increasingly using restrictive measures (economic sanctions) as a foreign policy tool under the domain of Common Foreign and Security Policy. Since economic sanctions are defined as 'hard power' tools, increasing use of them creates a contradiction with EU‘s traditional characterization in world politics. Aim of this study is to provide an explanation to this contradiction by analyzing the EU economic sanctions practices. In this sense, empirical evidence shows that the ability of the EU to use economic sanctions in an increasing trend stems from further integration and institutionalization of the CFSP via the interaction of internal and external dynamics which have led to an attempt by the EU to become an actor that is defined as 'smart power'.
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