Electrification of transport logistic vehicles: a techno-economic assessment of battery and fuel cell electric transporter
Kleiner, Florian and Özdemir, Enver Doruk and Schmid, Stephan A. and Beermann, Martin and Çatay, Bülent and Moran, Bob and Lim, Ock Taeck and Friedrich, Horst E. (2015) Electrification of transport logistic vehicles: a techno-economic assessment of battery and fuel cell electric transporter. In: 28th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS 28), Goyang, South Korea
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In order to minimize oil dependency and the negative environmental impacts as described within the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from all sectors of the global economy have to be reduced. Road freight transport is one of the fastest growing modes of transport and has an increasing share in the total GHG emissions of transport. Current concentration is mainly on incremental technology developments to reduce fuel consumption of conventional vehicles. However, there may be potential for (near) zero tailpipe emission vehicles that could result in the large-scale GHG reduction that is needed. In order to identify early (niche) markets for electric vehicle application, this paper gives an overview of current demonstration project activities in terms of powertrain technology implemented and transport task of investigation, with special focus on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight not exceeding 3.5 tonnes. Subsequently, current vehicle architecture and technology configuration is derived from an electric vehicle database created. Based on the insights gathered, and by the use of TACMO, a Transport Application based Cost Model developed at the German Aerospace Center, comprehensive techno-economic assessment was done. Data was collected and results were compared regarding different countries like Germany, Austria, Turkey, the United Kingdom and South Korea. The results show that battery electric vehicles may competitive throughout the countries of investigation and that fuel cell electric vehicles are by far, currently, not an economic solution mainly based on high costs of the fuel cell system and the high hydrogen prices per MJ energy carrier in comparison to electricity and diesel fuel prices. Purchase tax, energy prices and resale value are identified as main influencing factors of the relevant cost of ownership calculation. The analysis done, therefore, enables not only the discussion of current cost effectiveness in comparison to conventional vehicles but enables also the discussion relating to obstacles and further research needs.
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