Source separation using regularized NMF with MMSE estimates under GMM priors with online learning for the uncertainties
Grais, Emad Mounir and Erdoğan, Hakan (2014) Source separation using regularized NMF with MMSE estimates under GMM priors with online learning for the uncertainties. Digital Signal Processing, 29 . pp. 20-34. ISSN 1051-2004 (Print) 1095-4333 (Online)
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsp.2014.02.018
We propose a new method to incorporate priors on the solution of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). The NMF solution is guided to follow the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimates of the weight combinations under a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) prior. The proposed algorithm can be used for denoising or single-channel source separation (SCSS) applications. NMF is used in SCSS in two main stages, the training stage and the separation stage. In the training stage, NMF is used to decompose the training data spectrogram for each source into a multiplication of a trained basis and gains matrices. In the separation stage, the mixed signal spectrogram is decomposed as a weighted linear combination of the trained basis matrices for the source signals. In this work, to improve the separation performance of NMF, the trained gains matrices are used to guide the solution of the NMF weights during the separation stage. The trained gains matrix is used to train a prior GMM that captures the statistics of the valid weight combinations that the columns of the basis matrix can receive for a given source signal. In the separation stage, the prior GMMs are used to guide the NMF solution of the gains/weights matrices using MMSE estimation. The NMF decomposition weights matrix is treated as a distorted image by a distortion operator, which is learned directly from the observed signals. The MMSE estimate of the weights matrix under the trained GMM prior and log-normal distribution for the distortion is then found to improve the NMF decomposition results. The MMSE estimate is embedded within the optimization objective to form a novel regularized NMF cost function. The corresponding update rules for the new objectives are derived in this paper. The proposed MMSE estimates based regularization avoids the problem of computing the hyper-parameters and the regularization parameters. MMSE also provides a better estimate for the valid gains matrix. Experimental results show that the proposed regularized NMF algorithm improves the source separation performance compared with using NMF without a prior or with other prior models.
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