Designing heterogeneous porous tissue scaffolds for additive manufacturing processes
Khoda, AKM Bashirul and Özbolat, İbrahim T. and Koç, Bahattin (2013) Designing heterogeneous porous tissue scaffolds for additive manufacturing processes. Computer-Aided Design, 45 (12). pp. 1507-1523. ISSN 0010-4485
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2013.07.003
A novel tissue scaffold design technique has been proposed with controllable heterogeneous architecture design suitable for additive manufacturing processes. The proposed layer-based design uses a bi-layer pattern of radial and spiral layers consecutively to generate functionally gradient porosity, which follows the geometry of the scaffold. The proposed approach constructs the medial region from the medial axis of each corresponding layer, which represents the geometric internal feature or the spine. The radial layers of the scaffold are then generated by connecting the boundaries of the medial region and the layer's outer contour. To avoid the twisting of the internal channels, reorientation and relaxation techniques are introduced to establish the point matching of ruling lines. An optimization algorithm is developed to construct sub-regions from these ruling lines. Gradient porosity is changed between the medial region and the layer's outer contour. Iso-porosity regions are determined by dividing the subregions peripherally into pore cells and consecutive iso-porosity curves are generated using the isopoints from those pore cells. The combination of consecutive layers generates the pore cells with desired pore sizes. To ensure the fabrication of the designed scaffolds, the generated contours are optimized for a continuous, interconnected, and smooth deposition path-planning. A continuous zig-zag pattern deposition path crossing through the medial region is used for the initial layer and a biarc fitted isoporosity curve is generated for the consecutive layer with C-1 continuity. The proposed methodologies can generate the structure with gradient (linear or non-linear), variational or constant porosity that can provide localized control of variational porosity along the scaffold architecture. The designed porous structures can be fabricated using additive manufacturing processes.
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