Utilization of multiple graphene layers in fuel cells. 1. An improved technique for the exfoliation of graphene-based nanosheets from graphite
Saner, Burcu and Okyay, Firuze and Yürüm, Yuda (2010) Utilization of multiple graphene layers in fuel cells. 1. An improved technique for the exfoliation of graphene-based nanosheets from graphite. Fuel, 89 (8). pp. 1903-1910. ISSN 0016-2361
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.03.036
An improved, safer and mild method was proposed for the exfoliation of graphene like sheets from graphite to be used in fuel cells. The major aim in the proposed method is to reduce the number of layers in the graphite material and to produce large quantities of graphene bundles to be used as catalyst support in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Graphite oxide was prepared using potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid as oxidant and acetic anhydride as intercalating agent. The oxidation process seemed to create expanded and leafy structures of graphite oxide layers. Heat treatment of samples led to the thermal decomposition of acetic anhydride into carbondioxide and water vapor which further swelled the layered graphitic structure. Sonication of graphite oxide samples created more separated structures. Morphology of the sonicated graphite oxide samples exhibited expanded the layer structures and formed some tullelike translucent and crumpled graphite oxide sheets. The mild procedure applied was capable of reducing the average number of graphene sheets from 86 in the raw graphite to nine in graphene-based nanosheets. Raman spectroscopy analysis showed the significant reduction in size of the in-plane sp2 domains of graphene nanosheets obtained after the reduction of graphite oxide.
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