Review on carbon-derived, solid-state, micro and nano sensors for electrochemical sensing applications
Qureshi, Anjum and Kang , Weng P. and Davidson, Jimmy L. and Gürbüz, Yaşar (2009) Review on carbon-derived, solid-state, micro and nano sensors for electrochemical sensing applications. Diamond & Related Materials, 18 (12). pp. 1401-1420. ISSN 0925-9635
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2009.09.008
The aim of this review is to summarize the most relevant contributions in the development of electrochemical sensors based on carbon materials in the recent years. There have been increasing numbers of reports on the first application of carbon derived materials for the preparation of an electrochemical sensor. These include carbon nanotubes, diamond like carbon films and diamond film-based sensors demonstrating that the particular structure of these carbon material and their unique properties make them a very attractive material for the design of electrochemical biosensors and gas sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have become one of the most extensively studied nanostructures because of their unique properties. CNT can enhance the electrochemical reactivity of important biomolecules and can promote the electron-transfer reactions of proteins (including those where the redox center is embedded deep within the glycoprotein shell). In addition to enhanced electrochemical reactivity, CNT-modified electrodes have been shown useful to be coated with biomolecules (e.g., nucleic acids) and to alleviate surface fouling effects (such as those involved in the NADH oxidation process). The remarkable sensitivity of CNT conductivity with the surface adsorbates permits the use of CNT as highly sensitive nanoscale sensors. These properties make CNT extremely attractive for a wide range of electrochemical sensors ranging from amperometric enzyme electrodes to DNA hybridization biosensors. Recently, a CNT sensor based fast diagnosis method using non-treated blood assay has been developed for specific detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (human liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma caused by hepatitis B virus). The linear detection limits for HBV plasma is in the range 0.5–3.0 μL−1 and for anti- HBVs 0.035–0.242 mg/mL in a 0.1 M NH4H2PO4 electrolyte solution. These detection limits enables early detection of HBV infection in suspected serum samples. Therefore, non-treated blood serum can be directly applied for real-time sensitive detection in medical diagnosis as well as in direct in vivo monitoring. Synthetic diamond has been recognized as an extremely attractive material for both (bio-) chemical sensing and as an interface to biological systems. Synthetic diamond have outstanding electrochemical properties, superior chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Recent advances in the synthesis of highly conducting nanocrystalline-diamond thin films and nano wires have lead to an entirely new class of electrochemical biosensors and bio-inorganic interfaces. In addition, it also combines with development of new chemical approaches to covalently attach biomolecules on the diamond surface also contributed to the advancement of diamond-based biosensors. The feasibility of a capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulatorsemiconductor) platform for multi-parameter sensing is demonstrated with an O-terminated nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as transducer material for the detection of pH and penicillin concentration. This has also been extended for the label-free electrical monitoring of adsorption and binding of charged macromolecules. One more recent study demonstrated a novel bio-sensing platform, which is introduced by combination of a) geometrically controlled DNA bonding using vertically aligned diamond nano-wires and b) the superior electrochemical sensing properties of diamond as transducer material. Diamond nanowires can be a new approach towards next generation electrochemical gene sensor platforms. This review highlights the advantages of these carbon materials to promote different electron transfer reactions specially those related to biomolecules. Different strategies have been applied for constructing carbon material-based electrochemical sensors, their analytical performance and future prospects are discussed.
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