Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc through soil and foliar applications of nitrogen
Kutman, U. Barış and Yıldız, Bahar and Öztürk, Levent and Çakmak, İsmail (2009) Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc through soil and foliar applications of nitrogen. (Accepted/In Press)
ABSTRACT 2 Increasing zinc (Zn) concentration of cereal grains is a global challenge to alleviate Zn 3 deficiency-related health problems in humans caused by low dietary Zn intake. This study 4 investigated the effects of soil- and foliarly-applied nitrogen (N) and Zn fertilizers on grain Zn 5 accumulation of durum wheat (Triticum durum) grown on a Zn-deficient soil. In addition, 6 localization of Zn and protein within durum wheat grain was studied by using Bradford 7 reagent for protein and dithizone (diphenyl thiocarbazone) for Zn. Grain Zn concentration was 8 greatly enhanced by soil or foliar applications of Zn. When Zn supply was adequately high, 9 both soil and foliar N applications improved grain Zn concentration. Consequently, there was 10 a significant positive correlation between grain concentrations of Zn and N, when Zn supply 11 was not limiting. Protein and Zn staining studies showed co-localization of Zn and protein 12 within the grain, particularly in the embryo and aleurone. Results indicate that N and Zn 13 fertilization have a synergistic effect on grain Zn concentration. Possibly, by affecting the 14 levels of Zn-chelating nitrogenous compounds and/or the abundance of Zn transporters, 15 increasing N supply contributes to grain Zn concentration, suggesting that nitrogen 16 management can be an effective agronomic tool to improve grain Zn concentration.
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