Natural ZMP trajectories for biped robot reference generation
Erbatur, Kemalettin and Kurt, Okan (2009) Natural ZMP trajectories for biped robot reference generation. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 56 (3). pp. 835-845. ISSN 0278-0046
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.2005150
The control of a biped humanoid is a challenging task due to the hard-to-stabilize dynamics. Walking reference trajectory generation is a key problem. Linear Inverted Pendulum Model (LIPM) and Zero Moment Point (ZMP) Criterion based approaches in stable walking reference generation are reported. In these methods, generally, the ZMP reference during a stepping motion is kept fixed in the middle of the supporting foot sole. This kind of reference generation lacks naturalness, in that, the ZMP in the human walk does not stay fixed, but it moves forward under the supporting foot. This paper proposes a reference generation algorithm based on the LIPM and moving support foot ZMP references. The application of Fourier series approximation simplifies the solution and it generates a smooth ZMP reference. A simple inverse kinematics based joint space controller is used for the tests of the developed reference trajectory through full-dynamics 3D simulation. A 12 DOF biped robot model is used in the simulations. Simulation studies suggest that the moving ZMP references are more energy efficient than the ones with fixed ZMP under the supporting foot. The results are promising for implementations.
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