Trace elements in Turkish biomass fuels: Ashes of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shell
Bakışgan, Ceren and Dumanlı, Ahu Gümrah and Yürüm, Yuda (2009) Trace elements in Turkish biomass fuels: Ashes of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shell. Fuel, 88 (10). pp. 1842-1851. ISSN 0016-2361
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.04.027
Ash contents of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shells were 7.9%, 3.9%, 1.2%, respectively, which seemed to be within the average values of ash of biomass. The microstructure of ashes included smooth, polygonal, granular and molten drop structures. A large percentage of particles present in ashes are commonly 1–20 lm in size. SEM/EDS analyses performed on the major ash forming elements in different ashes indicated that Si, Ca, K and Mg and P were generally the most abundant species. Trace element levels in ash samples of various biomass types such as hazelnut shell, wheat straw, olive bagasse were analysed using ICP spectroscopy. The elements determined were some of those considered being of great environmental concern such as, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb. In all of the ashes studied Fe had the highest concentration among other trace elements, Mn was the second element that exhibited higher concentrations. The order of concentration of elements in the ashes from the highest to the lowest values was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co.
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